Bond Machine Knitting - Useful Bits and Pieces!

Date: Sun, 13 Jul 1997 17:26:31 +1000
From: Val Paino (
Subject: [BOND] MK Abbreviations

For a while now, I've been collecting a list of abbreviations as they
apply to machine knitters, as seen in books, patterns, etc.  I thought
it might be of use to some here, and that you may have additions for me.
While they are not Bond-specific, there are Bond terms here and they
will also help in converting MK patterns to the Bond.

Regards, Val


NB These abbreviations may be found in upper or lower case.

A,B,C and D (usually) contrast colours
1/3,2/3}= denotes tensions represented by dots between whole numbers
.1,.2  }  on stitch/tension dial

alt     = alternate(ly)
altog   = altogether
ANR     = all needle rib (DR,ENR,FNR,K/K)
beg     = beginning
BB      = back bed
BO      = bind off (cast off)
BOLT    = bind off (latch tool)
CAL     = carriage at left
carr    = carriage (cam box) (lock - Passap)
CAR     = carriage at right
CB      = cam box (generic term for carriage/lock)
CC      = clearing cams (generic term for part/slip/empty buttons)
CC      = contrast colour
ch      = chain   = chain cast-on (latch-tool/crochet cast-on)
cm      = centimetre(s)
CO      = cast on
COBH    = cast on by hand
col     = colour
COL     = carriage on left
con     = contrast
COR     = carriage on right
cont    = continu(e)(ing)
CR      = carriage release
CY      = contrast yarn
DB      = double bed
dc      = double crochet
dec     = decreas(e)(ing)
DK      = double knitting
DR      = double rib (ANR,ENR,FNR,K/K)
ENR     = every needle rib (ANR,DR,FNR,K/K)
EON     = every other needle
EOR     = every other row
ev      = every
FB      = front bed
Ff(FF)  = fully fashioned
FI      = Fair Isle
fig     = figure
FL      = fine lace (on Brother machines)
FNR     = full needle rib (ANR,DR,ENR,K/K)
foll    = following
ft      = foot (feet)
g       = grams (grammes)
GC      = garter carriage
GS      = garter stitch
HK      = hand knitting
HP      = holding position
I       = working position (needles) (Passap)
IC      = intarsia carriage
in      = inch(es)
inc     = increas(e)(ing)
ISM     = Incredible Sweater Machine (Bond)
K       = knit
KCI  }  = dial positions on Brother machines
K/K     = knit/knit (ANR,DR,ENR,FNR)
kg      = kilogram(s) (kilogrammes)
L       = lace
L       = left
lb      = pound(s) (weight)
LC      = lace carriage
LH      = left hand
LHS     = left hand side
LOL     = lock on left (Passap)
LOR     = lock on right (Passap)
M/c     = machine
MB      = main bed
MC      = main carriage
MC      = main colour
MC      = multi-colour (on Brother machines)
mm      = millimetre(s)
MT      = main tension
MT-1    = main tension minus one, one whole number less than main tension
          used in knitting the garment
MT+1    = main tension plus one, one whole number more than main tension
          used in knitting the garment
MY      = main yarn
N(s)    = needle(s)
Nd(s)   = needle(s)
Ndl(s)  = needle(s)
NB      = note bien  (take note)
No      = number
NRB     = needle return buttons
NSB     = needle selection buttons
NWP     = non working position
0       = central position on needle bed
O       = neutral position (needles) (Passap)
O/0     = no stitches or rows worked
opp     = opposite
oz      = ounce(s)
P       = purl
PAT     = pusher aligning tool (Passap)
patt    = pattern
PB      = push-button
PC      = punch card
R       = right
RB      = ribber bed
RC      = return cams (generic term for holding position levers)
RC      = row counter
rem     = remaining
rep     = repeat
RH      = right hand
RHS     = right hand side
RP      - rest position (Passap)
RT      = rib tension
SB      = single bed
SC      = single crochet
SD      = selector dial (Passap)
SRE     = silk ribbon embroidery
SS      = stitch size
S/S     = stocking stitch (stockinette stitch)
st(s)   = stitch(es)
StS     = stitch size
std     = standard
strd    = strand  = stocking stitch (stockinette stitch)
SY      = scrap yarn
T       = tension
TC      = transfer carriage
TD      = tension dial
tog     = together
trans   = transfer
UWP     = upper working position
WK      = waste knit (K a few rows and release from machine, using WY)
WOCO    = wind-on cast on (e-wrap)
WP      = working position
WY      = waste yarn
yd      = yard(s)
x       = times
[]      = figures in brackets refer to larger sizes
()      = at end of sentence denote total no. of sts., rows or ns.


Ounces to grams, calculated to the nearest whole gram

1 oz = 28.35 grams

                oz              gms

                 1      ..       28
                 2      ..       57
                 3      ..       85
                 4      ..      113
                 5      ..      142
                 6      ..      170
                 7      ..      198
                 8      ..      227
                 9      ..      255
                10      ..      283
                11      ..      312
                12      ..      340
                13      ..      369
                14      ..      397
                15      ..      425
                16      ..      454
Sydney Australia


Date: Sat, 16 Aug 1997 23:06:48 -0700
Subject: [BOND] Simple Thought

        I have been doing the following for years for both hand and machine
knitting, when I am doing a garment, irregardless of the amount of colours,
the type of wool/yarn etc.  I tape a small one inch sample of all the yarns
used to the pattern page, just in case I want to use that same colours again
and can't remember them.  I also tape or actually I staple the band from one
of the balls of yarn and put the tension on the back as well as the colour
numbers, not the dye lots as these would change over the years.  

        I also use a receipe card box, small one, for recording the tensions
and patterns that I enjoy knitting the most, it makes an easy reference when
doing keyplate sweaters that I hope the tension matches.  Also remember
there is a great difference between whites, lights and dark colours in
tension swatches due to dyeing and over-dyeing.

        Friends in knitting,
Linda Boudreau


Date: 30 Aug 1997 15:24:09 EST
From: "Karen E. Bourne"                      (KBOURN@CO.FAIRFAX.VA.US)

Here are 2 URL's that have chest size charts for babies and children.          

National Bureau of Standards Body Measurements Tables                          
(includes all kinds of measurements, not just chest size)             
Yarn Forward - CHILDREN'S SIZES                                                
(just chest and finished sizes)
Hope this helps!                                                               


Date: Sat, 30 Aug 1997 17:20:28 -0500
From: "Jimmy Simmons" (
Subject: Re: [BOND] baby, toddler sizes

Here are the standard chest sizes:

(Size Baby)  Baby   =  19"
(Size 1-2)   1-2 Yr =  20-1/2"
(Size 3-4)   3-4 Yr =  22"
(Size 5)     5-6 Yr =  23-1/2"
(Size 6-7)   6-7 Yr =  25-1/2"
(Size 8)     9-10 Yr=  27"
(Size 9-10)  11-12 Yr= 28-1/2"
(Size 11-12) 13-14 Yr= 31"
- --------------------------------------
Size 12 =  32"
Size 14 =  34"
Size 16 =  36"
Size 18 =  38"
- ---------------------------------------
Size 34 =  34"
Size 36 =  36"
Size 38 =  38"
Size 40 =  40"
Size 42 =  42"
Size 44 +  44"
- ----------------------------------------
Taking the measurement:  Bust or chest:  Measure at the fullest part of the
bust or chest, putting the tape evenly and *lightly* around.

Note: if you take measurements, don't use the actual measurements for the
size of the garment.  It will be too tight.  An allowance must be figured
in.  For Women and men add about 3" to the actual bust/chest measurement. 
For a child add about 4".  I haven't had too much experience pattern
drafting for a baby.  I would add about the same amount as for a woman or
man (about 3")

I hope this helps.  One of these days (when I get a round tuit) I'll make a
chart of all the major measurements for sizes.  (arm-length, waist, neck
opening, etc.)

Jimmy L. Simmons


Date: Mon, 29 Sep 1997 07:36:49 -0400
From: (McGeveran Nancy)
Subject: [BOND] Graph Paper

There's a wonderful little shareware windows program that lets you make
graph paper in any size you like (say 4spaces horizontally and 5 spaces
vertically per inch--one I just used).  You just enter your guage per
inch, press print, and voila!  It can be downloaded from

Nancy McGeveran
New York


Date: Thu, 20 Nov 1997 09:15:35 -0800
From: Linda Boudreau (
Subject: [BOND] Organization + Inovationative Techniques

Toilet tissue tubes - don't throw away, use these over the ball winder, by
making a small slit in the top of it, insert the yarn put it on the winder
and wind as usual.
The store upright so that you can see what colours you have left over.  Also
great for having a centre feed ball for knitting with.

Shoe boxes etc - don't throw away, place yarn on its side with the centre
pull facing out towards the side.  Using a paper punch or hole maker, make a
hole in approximately 4 evenly spaced places across the box.  Do not make a
slit above the hole as the yarn will get caught every time.  Put the yarn in
the box, insert the ends, through the hole, put the cover on, and you have
hassel free intarsia or fairisle knitting.  If you also put a panel in the
top, and cover it with clear wrap you can see when you are getting close to
the end.

Clothes pins - I use these for hanging onto the ends of the balls when I am
knitting, it always tells me that the end is near.  Do not place it right on
the end but rather up about a foot and you will be able to catch it in time.

Plastic or clay flower pots - Use these for placing the yarns under and feed
the colours through the hole in the bottom.  Insert yarn through the hole,
place the flower pot upside down and knit away, no more rolling yarn, no
more tanlged mess.

Cuphooks:- Use these on the back of the machine where the yarn feeds from a
basket on the floot, pass the yarn through the cup hook, and it passes
through without going back and forth over the bed every time as we do not
have yarn masts on the ISM>

Cuphook plus 6 inch ruler. = To avoid the yarns from getting caught in the
row counter screw a cup book through the spot on the ruler where your
carriage height is above the counter by at least an inch.  Glue on screw
this in place at the back of the table.  Now put the cup hook below this for
an even feed to the top and voila' no more tangled row counters and yarn.

Basket on wheels - after the infants abandon the three tiered tray in the
nursery, or go to a discount store and purchase one, what I do is copy the
pattern by copier , wind off all of my yarn, and place each in a section of
the three tier basket depending on how and when I want them finished.  I do
the same for quilting and sewing.

Gift bags - pretty as they are they are wonderful to put behind the table on
the floor to hold the yarns, they are also great for putting a whole project
in that you want to do some hand ribbing on ( banish the thought), but some
of us are diehards, put in the appropriate needles, set them beside the
door, or better yet, if not in a hurry for same place in the verhicle, next
time you are waiting it will amaze you how much you can accomplish when you
wait for someone who is shopping.

Coloured nail polish - No I have not lost it, this is an age old trick, when
you are working a pattern and want to know exactly which needles to use
every time and they are not going to move, put a dot of nailpolish on the
bar in front or you can use a dot from the stationery store.  You will never
select the wrong needles again.  After you are done a q-tip and polish
remover moves it out of the way.

Bulletn Boards - Put the patterns of the projects that you plan to do along
with a sample of the yarn on the board, everytime you feel you just cannot
knit another row look at the board, and be inspired with what is coming
next.  It also serves as a great palce to put a note of inspiration.

Scrapbooks:-  I cut the picutres out of sweaters that really interest me,
for colour for designs etc., don't forget oriental rug and needlepoints,
they have already taken the guess work out of colour combinations and today
even the most inexpensive yarn comes in the dull as well as the bright colours.

I never used white in a fairisle design, rather use off white, as it makes
it stick out like a dot on paper, it is the only colour imaginable that can
look straight at you.  I learned this from my readings of Kaffee Fassett.

When a garment is finished I put about 4 inche pieces of the yarn that I
used and tape them to the pattern sheet, then I staple this tape in place
and put it in a safe spot so if I ever go to reproduce, I am sure with the
yarn lable, and swatch along with the yarn it can be done.

Why I now love to do tension swatches - Pick up a set of the clear sheets
that you can insert a tension swatch into.  As you try a new technique and
are inspired by it, pin it in place in the sheet, along with the directions
on how you accomplished this.  When you have found a better technique remove
it from the binder and put it in a basket that you are now saving for a
crazy quilt.  All you have to do is using a yarn that is either
complimentary or selected single crochet around each of these or whip stitch
them together on a flat bed sheet. I do not use bedsheets for quilting but
use them when I am doing victorian crazy quilt art as they last much longer,
and one does not have to qult through them, the design is all on the top,
and they are secured by the embroidery stitches.

Anove all, relax and enjoy yourself.  Remember, to stop and take a break
when it seems impossible to go any further, read a good book, go for a walk,
and then come back and it will look all new again.

Bonding Buddy,
Linda B.
" I cried because I had no shoes - until I met a man who had no feet."
" Live life one day at a time but make it a masterpiece."  (Linda )


Date: Fri, 9 Jan 1998 21:45:39 EST
From: Sade92 (
Subject: Re: [BOND] Re: grams & oz

Ounces         = Grams x 0.035
Grams          = Ounces x 28.57
Inches          = Centimeters x 0.3937
Yards           = Meters x 0.9144
Centimeters  = Inches x 2.54
Meters          = Yards x 1.0936

3/4 oz.     = 21.5 grams
1 oz.        = 28.5 grams
1 1/2 oz.   = 43 grams
1 3/4 oz.   = 50 grams
2 oz.         = 57 grams
3 1/2 oz.   = 100 grams

Hope this helps!
Laura in Ohio


Date: Sat, 05 Sep 1998 12:19:43 -0500
From: Carl Andrew Hellner 
Subject: Re: [BOND] Yellow card

> I am a new user and cannot find my "yellow card" can someone please tell me
> what the measurements are so I can make one??

The yellow card measures 2 3/8" x 7 3/4" (55mm x 197mm).  The green card
measures 2 5/8" x 7 3/4" (65mm x 197mm).


Date: Fri, 02 Oct 1998 13:05:59 -0700
From: Jill Delgado 
Subject: [BOND] Sweater ease

I was just rereading Lynda's letter about her success at the fair,where
she was wondering about amount to allow for ease,  and remembered I had
a book with ease formulas.  Thought that, at last, I could share
something that everyone might use.

Finished Bust/chest measurments

Body hugging.. subtract 5-10% from actual measurment
Close fitting ..... plus 0-5%
Normal 7-10%
Loose fitting 12-15%
Oversized 16-20%

Hope this helps...


Date: Wed, 11 Nov 1998 13:41:41 EST
Subject: Re:  [BOND] Dye question

I once heard  Sandra Betzina say on Sew Perfect (HGTV) that if you added a cup
of salt and a cup of vinegar into the wash water, your fabric would no longer
bleed.  I have tried it and it worked for me.


Date: Thu, 12 Nov 1998 08:37:05 -0600
From: "Holly Jones" 
Subject: Re: [BOND] Dye question- hints

I know from experience (and my Chemistry teaching parents)  that you
can set the dye of a garment or yarn  by washing it in  salt water  or
vinegar .

Salt method
Just add a health amount of  table salt to the  WARM  wash water  - so the
salt will be disolved when you add the item. You can  taste  the water (
before you add the soap! :)  and it should be like sea water. ( This is how
the Panama   native indains  set the bright colors in their multi color
Molas- just wash them in the ocean ) You really can not use too much salt. 
Then add the garment, soap  and  wash as usual. 

Vinegar Method
Substitute vinegar for salt  at least  2 cups per wash load . Any vinegar
will do --  the cheaper the better.

Combined method 
For added insurance I add 1 cup or so of vinegar to the FINAL rinse water 
of   the salt water method . I place the vinegar in the fabric softener
dispenser. The acid of the vinegar will  neutralize and lock in the dye
color  and make certain that the salt and soap are out .  Any vinegar will
do --  the cheaper the better.  I buy the gallon size at Sam's  Club.  

In Fact I use Vinegar in the rinse the first time I wash any  colorful
clothes  and in the rinse water of all my  washable silks. Vinegar  makes
the color "last" longer and the silks come out with a nicer feel and less
wrinkles.  Works as a fabric softener but MUCH cheaper  and  no dye or
perfumes to bug my nose and skin .

Try it .. Good luck
Holly Jones in  Carrollton Texas  on North edge of  Dallas, Texas 


Date: Fri, 4 Dec 1998 08:30:17 -0600
From: (Shannon R.)
Subject: [BOND] Using the Latch Tool

I have seen several references about users having difficulty with the latch
tool and working up the rib.  After struggling myself for quite a while I
knew there had to be a "trick" to this and watched the video again.  There
are two important factors ... keep tension below the area you are latching
up -- I either put a thumb underneath or even use the two-prong tool about
1" down to really get a good hold.  Second ... hold the latch tool
horizontally and move smoothly back and forth.  The rhythm of the stitch
going over the latch will automatically open it and it will be ready to
catch the next ladder.  I caught myself holding the tool at a diagonal thus
catching and splitting the next stitch almost every time.  I hope this
helps you because it made a world of difference in my latching speed.  Oh,
yes, one more thing ... when my tools were new the latch didn't open and
close easy -- come to find out there was a small piece of plastic wedged in
behind the latch from when they assembled the tool.

Shannon aka Quilty   Otis KS
Taking time to stitch isn't a luxury --- it's a necessity!


Date: Fri, 4 Dec 1998 13:12:40 -0500
From: "" 
Subject: [BOND] Using the Latch Tool

Hi everyone:  Another tip is to hold the latch tool in between the 
thumb and the last three fingers of your hand and use 
your index finger to hold the latch open when you have a stitch 
behind the latch.  Lea-Ann
Bond Knitters' Club Online! --


Japanese mid-gauge and Bond machine comparison (according to Bond)

 Metric hand knitting
 |       US hand knitting
 |         |      Bond 8mm original (no dot)
 |         |      |     Bond 8mm dot
 |         |      |     |     Brother 8mm
 |         |      |     |     |       Bond Elite 7mm
 |         |      |     |     |       |      Singer/Studio 6.5mm
 |         |      |     |     |       |      |
2.25    1*                1      1    1.5
2.75    2*                2      2    2.5
3.25    3                 3.5    3    3.5
3.5      4     1          4.5    4    5
3.75    5           1    6       5    6
4.0      6                 7.5    6    7.5
4.25           2
4.5      7           2    8.5    7    9
5.0      8                10      8   10+
5.25          3     3
5.5      9
5.75          4     4
6.0     10

* note that the metric equivalent of US size 1 needles is variously
given as 2.25 or 2.5 and US size 2 is given as either 2.75 or 3.

- -------
A table from a 1989 Bond Keyplate News provided by Donna Crolley.

Various sources for the metric equivalents to US sizes including Lois
Baker's hand knitting needle size chart


Keyplate         Yarn Type            Handknit Needle Size      Gauge
1              Baby/Light Sport                  6                               22-26 sts/4in
2         DK/Sport/Light Worsted           6-7                           18-21sts/4in
3                4-ply Worsted                    8-9                             16-18 sts/4in
4               Chunky/Mohair                    9-10                         14-15 sts/4in


Date: Mon, 17 Jan 2000 01:09:42 -0800
From: "Lila M. Jones" 
Subject: [BOND] Yardage requirements.

Betty, do you have "Creative?"  I got mine from Lea-Ann.  The patterns
are dated, but the info is wonderful.  About estimating yardage

"General rule of thumb for a plain, long-sleeved ladies
sweater is: size 12 pullover will require approx. 1000 yards of bulky
weight, 1200 yards of worsted weight, and 1400 yards of sport weight.
Add or subtract 10% for each size larger or smaller.  If you add pattern
stitches such as tuck or cable, your will use more yarn.  Lace patterns
require slightly less."

"If you do not have any given yardage for the yarn, try this method used
by spinners and weavers.  Wrap your yarn around a ruler.  Wrap the yarn
smoothly so that the strands lie side by side, but do not pull the yarn
tightly.  Now count the number of wraps per inch.  A worsted weight will
measure 12 wraps per inch, and sport weight will measure 14 wraps per
inch.  As in measuring your gauge, it is best to wrap two to three
inches, count the wraps overall, then divide by the number of inches."

"This correlates to the number of yards required for an average
sweater.  One wrap per inch for each 100 yards required for the
sweater.  A worsted weight will measure 12 wraps per inch and will
require approximately 1200 yard for the average adult sweater."

This was quoted from an article in "Creative" page 12.
I hope this helps.  Lila


Date: Wed, 09 Feb 2000 18:41:16
From: Susannah Kelsey 
Subject: Re: [BOND] Yarn thickness

>I have a question about yarn.
>I don't know about Britain, but in America there are basically 3 types
>of yarn. Baby weight or "fingering" I think it's called, sport yarn and
>worsted weight.
>Am I correct in assuming that:
>baby yarn is 2 ply (very thin)
>sport weight is 3 ply (medium)
>worsted weight is 4 ply (medium to heavy)

Instead of the "ply" system that can be very confusing when going back and
forth between American and British terminology, I categorize yarns by the
number of stitches per inch instead. For example, we think of 4-ply as
worsted weight, but British knitters use 4-ply to indicate fingering weight.

Baby weight or fingering yarns knit at about 7stitches per inch
Sport is 6 sts per inch
DK or double knitting is 5.5 sts per inch
Worsted is 5 sts per inch
Heavy worsted or Aran is 4.5 to 4 sts per inch
Bulky or chunky is 3.5 to 3 sts per inch

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Last modified on : 14th February 2000.